Surgery is a branch of medicine or dentistry that makes use of surgical instruments to study or diagnose a disease or pathological condition like an injury or a disease, to promote physical function, appearance, or even to repair unsightly damaged tissues. Surgery has evolved into a major component of medical care systems all over the world and has become widely used for treatment and prevention of diseases and injuries. It is estimated that surgery accounts for nearly 15% of the gross domestic product in the United States. The procedure involves the surgical removal of a part of the body, with the intention to correct a disorder or physical deformity, repair a body organ, provide psychological treatment or prevent permanent disabilities. Surgery can either be elective (for example, weight loss surgery) or non-evident (to remove a cancerous growth).
Anyone who needs help after having surgery should consider going through preoperative and postoperative care. These are preoperative and postoperative care that are required prior to surgery and following surgery to make sure that the patient is healthy and that he heals fast. When a patient comes to an operation room, he will need assistance from at least one other person to get him in good physical condition. Usually, this assistance is provided by a surgeon or some other trained professional such as the emergency room doctor, the orthopedist, the CRNA, the physiatrist, the cardiologist, the surgeon’s assistant, the nurse, or a volunteer.
The procedures and equipment used during surgery are referred to as equipment and supplies. These are generally purchased by the surgeon, but may come from the hospital or the local pharmaceutical supply company. In some cases, the surgeon may acquire new or repurposed equipment or supplies from a specialty supplier. The surgeon or his assistants are responsible for preparing patients for surgery by measuring their height and body weight and for prepping them for local anesthesia. They then place the patient on the operating table, where the procedure will take place.
Anesthetic is the drug or agent used for sedation and for rendering the patient unconscious during and after an invasive or minimally invasive procedure. Local anesthesia causes the numbness and the decreased feeling of pain. It is used most often in surgeries involving the spine or upper limbs. A general anesthetic, which gives the patient a general feeling of well-being, is administered during the surgery but is not considered a reliable substitute for local anesthetics since it cannot control the reflexive functions of the brain.
The main preoperative measures include removing the adhesions or the loose tissue that results from a surgery, the dressing of the wounds, the control of bleeding, the dilation of the blood vessels, and the manipulation of the abdominal area. This will facilitate the passage of the anesthetics and other drugs for the surgical procedure. These preops also include the generation of a scar, the positioning of the incision marks, and the management of the wounds. An incision is created in the perineum, the membrane that lines the anus. The perineum is an ideal site because it allows for the quick removal of large pieces of abdominal tissue during the post-surgical procedures.
A preop surgical plan should be designed and prepared by the surgeon and his or her team of surgeons and nurses. The preop surgical plan should include the details of the procedure as well as the expected outcome. This will allow the hospital and the patient to anticipate any complications that may arise from the surgery. When a prior surgical plan is done correctly, there is a good chance for a safe and successful preop.